Building your Deep Neural Network: Step by Step

You have previously trained a 2-layer Neural Network (with a single hidden layer). This week, you will build a deep neural network, with as many layers as you want!

  • In this notebook, you will implement all the functions required to build a deep neural network.
  • In the next assignment, you will use these functions to build a deep neural network for image classification.

After this assignment you will be able to:

  • Use non-linear units like ReLU to improve your model
  • Build a deeper neural network (with more than 1 hidden layer)
  • Implement an easy-to-use neural network class

img

Packages

Let’s first import all the packages that you will need during this assignment.

  • numpy is the main package for scientific computing with Python.
  • matplotlib is a library to plot graphs in Python.
  • dnn_utils provides some necessary functions for this notebook.
  • testCases provides some test cases to assess the correctness of your functions.
  • np.random.seed(1) is used to keep all the random function calls consistent. It will help us grade your work. Please don’t change the seed.
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import numpy as np
import h5py
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from testCases_v2 import *
from dnn_utils_v2 import sigmoid, sigmoid_backward, relu, relu_backward

%matplotlib inline
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (5.0, 4.0) # set default size of plots
plt.rcParams['image.interpolation'] = 'nearest'
plt.rcParams['image.cmap'] = 'gray'

%load_ext autoreload
%autoreload 2

np.random.seed(1)

Outline od the Assignment

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Note that for every forward function, there is a corresponding backward function. That is why at every step of your forward module you will be storing some values in a cache. The cached values are useful for computing gradients. In the backpropagation module you will then use the cache to calculate the gradients. This assignment will show you exactly how to carry out each of these steps.

Initialization

You will write two helper functions that will initialize the parameters for your model. The first function will be used to initialize parameters for a two layer model. The second one will generalize this initialization process to L layers.

2-layer Neural Network

Create and initialize the parameters of the 2-layer neural network.

Instructions:

  • The model’s structure is: LINEAR -> RELU -> LINEAR -> SIGMOID.
  • Use random initialization for the weight matrices. Use np.random.randn(shape)*0.01 with the correct shape.
  • Use zero initialization for the biases. Use np.zeros(shape).
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# GRADED FUNCTION: initialize_parameters

def initialize_parameters(n_x, n_h, n_y):
"""
Argument:
n_x -- size of the input layer
n_h -- size of the hidden layer
n_y -- size of the output layer

Returns:
parameters -- python dictionary containing your parameters:
W1 -- weight matrix of shape (n_h, n_x)
b1 -- bias vector of shape (n_h, 1)
W2 -- weight matrix of shape (n_y, n_h)
b2 -- bias vector of shape (n_y, 1)
"""

np.random.seed(1)

### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 4 lines of code)
W1 = np.random.randn(n_h, n_x) * 0.01
b1 = np.zeros((n_h, 1))
W2 = np.random.randn(n_y, n_h) * 0.01
b2 = np.zeros((n_y, 1))
### END CODE HERE ###

assert(W1.shape == (n_h, n_x))
assert(b1.shape == (n_h, 1))
assert(W2.shape == (n_y, n_h))
assert(b2.shape == (n_y, 1))

parameters = {"W1": W1,
"b1": b1,
"W2": W2,
"b2": b2}

return parameters

"""
parameters = initialize_parameters(2,2,1)
print("W1 = " + str(parameters["W1"]))
print("b1 = " + str(parameters["b1"]))
print("W2 = " + str(parameters["W2"]))
print("b2 = " + str(parameters["b2"]))

out:
W1 = [[ 0.01624345 -0.00611756]
[-0.00528172 -0.01072969]]
b1 = [[ 0.]
[ 0.]]
W2 = [[ 0.00865408 -0.02301539]]
b2 = [[ 0.]]
"""

L-layer Neural Network

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Implement initialization for an L-layer Neural Network.

img

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# GRADED FUNCTION: initialize_parameters_deep

def initialize_parameters_deep(layer_dims):
"""
Arguments:
layer_dims -- python array (list) containing the dimensions of each layer in our network

Returns:
parameters -- python dictionary containing your parameters "W1", "b1", ..., "WL", "bL":
Wl -- weight matrix of shape (layer_dims[l], layer_dims[l-1])
bl -- bias vector of shape (layer_dims[l], 1)
"""

np.random.seed(3)
parameters = {}
L = len(layer_dims) # number of layers in the network

for l in range(1, L):
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
parameters['W' + str(l)] = np.random.randn(layer_dims[l], layer_dims[l-1]) * 0.01
parameters['b' + str(l)] = np.zeros((layer_dims[l], 1))
### END CODE HERE ###

assert(parameters['W' + str(l)].shape == (layer_dims[l], layer_dims[l-1]))
assert(parameters['b' + str(l)].shape == (layer_dims[l], 1))


return parameters

"""
parameters = initialize_parameters_deep([5,4,3])
print("W1 = " + str(parameters["W1"]))
print("b1 = " + str(parameters["b1"]))
print("W2 = " + str(parameters["W2"]))
print("b2 = " + str(parameters["b2"]))

out:
W1 = [[ 0.01788628 0.0043651 0.00096497 -0.01863493 -0.00277388]
[-0.00354759 -0.00082741 -0.00627001 -0.00043818 -0.00477218]
[-0.01313865 0.00884622 0.00881318 0.01709573 0.00050034]
[-0.00404677 -0.0054536 -0.01546477 0.00982367 -0.01101068]]
b1 = [[ 0.]
[ 0.]
[ 0.]
[ 0.]]
W2 = [[-0.01185047 -0.0020565 0.01486148 0.00236716]
[-0.01023785 -0.00712993 0.00625245 -0.00160513]
[-0.00768836 -0.00230031 0.00745056 0.01976111]]
b2 = [[ 0.]
[ 0.]
[ 0.]]
"""

Forward propagation module

Linear Forward

Now that you have initialized your parameters, you will do the forward propagation module. You will start by implementing some basic functions that you will use later when implementing the model. You will complete three functions in this order:

img

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# GRADED FUNCTION: linear_forward

def linear_forward(A, W, b):
"""
Implement the linear part of a layer's forward propagation.

Arguments:
A -- activations from previous layer (or input data): (size of previous layer, number of examples)
W -- weights matrix: numpy array of shape (size of current layer, size of previous layer)
b -- bias vector, numpy array of shape (size of the current layer, 1)

Returns:
Z -- the input of the activation function, also called pre-activation parameter
cache -- a python dictionary containing "A", "W" and "b" ; stored for computing the backward pass efficiently
"""

### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 1 line of code)
Z = np.dot(W, A) + b
### END CODE HERE ###

assert(Z.shape == (W.shape[0], A.shape[1]))
cache = (A, W, b)

return Z, cache

"""
A, W, b = linear_forward_test_case()

Z, linear_cache = linear_forward(A, W, b)
print("Z = " + str(Z))

out:
Z = [[ 3.26295337 -1.23429987]]
"""

Linear-Activation Forward

img

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# GRADED FUNCTION: linear_activation_forward

def linear_activation_forward(A_prev, W, b, activation):
"""
Implement the forward propagation for the LINEAR->ACTIVATION layer

Arguments:
A_prev -- activations from previous layer (or input data): (size of previous layer, number of examples)
W -- weights matrix: numpy array of shape (size of current layer, size of previous layer)
b -- bias vector, numpy array of shape (size of the current layer, 1)
activation -- the activation to be used in this layer, stored as a text string: "sigmoid" or "relu"

Returns:
A -- the output of the activation function, also called the post-activation value
cache -- a python dictionary containing "linear_cache" and "activation_cache";
stored for computing the backward pass efficiently
"""

if activation == "sigmoid":
# Inputs: "A_prev, W, b". Outputs: "A, activation_cache".
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
Z, linear_cache = linear_forward(A_prev, W, b)
A, activation_cache = sigmoid(Z)
### END CODE HERE ###

elif activation == "relu":
# Inputs: "A_prev, W, b". Outputs: "A, activation_cache".
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
Z, linear_cache = linear_forward(A_prev, W, b)
A, activation_cache = relu(Z)
### END CODE HERE ###

assert (A.shape == (W.shape[0], A_prev.shape[1]))
cache = (linear_cache, activation_cache)

return A, cache

"""
A_prev, W, b = linear_activation_forward_test_case()

A, linear_activation_cache = linear_activation_forward(A_prev, W, b, activation = "sigmoid")
print("With sigmoid: A = " + str(A))

A, linear_activation_cache = linear_activation_forward(A_prev, W, b, activation = "relu")
print("With ReLU: A = " + str(A))

out:
With sigmoid: A = [[ 0.96890023 0.11013289]]
With ReLU: A = [[ 3.43896131 0. ]]
"""

Note: In deep learning, the “[LINEAR->ACTIVATION]” computation is counted as a single layer in the neural network, not two layers.

L-Layer Model

For even more convenience when implementing the L-layer Neural Net, you will need a function that replicates the previous one (linear_activation_forward with RELU) L−1 times, then follows that with one linear_activation_forward with SIGMOID.

img

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# GRADED FUNCTION: L_model_forward

def L_model_forward(X, parameters):
"""
Implement forward propagation for the [LINEAR->RELU]*(L-1)->LINEAR->SIGMOID computation

Arguments:
X -- data, numpy array of shape (input size, number of examples)
parameters -- output of initialize_parameters_deep()

Returns:
AL -- last post-activation value
caches -- list of caches containing:
every cache of linear_relu_forward() (there are L-1 of them, indexed from 0 to L-2)
the cache of linear_sigmoid_forward() (there is one, indexed L-1)
"""

caches = []
A = X
L = len(parameters) // 2 # number of layers in the neural network

# Implement [LINEAR -> RELU]*(L-1). Add "cache" to the "caches" list.
for l in range(1, L):
A_prev = A
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
A, cache = linear_activation_forward(A_prev, parameters["W" + str(l)], parameters["b" + str(l)], activation="relu")
caches.append(cache)
### END CODE HERE ###

# Implement LINEAR -> SIGMOID. Add "cache" to the "caches" list.
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
AL, cache = linear_activation_forward(A, parameters["W" + str(L)], parameters["b" + str(L)], activation="sigmoid")

### END CODE HERE ###

assert(AL.shape == (1,X.shape[1]))

return AL, caches

"""
X, parameters = L_model_forward_test_case()
AL, caches = L_model_forward(X, parameters)
print("AL = " + str(AL))
print("Length of caches list = " + str(len(caches)))

out:
AL = [[ 0.17007265 0.2524272 ]]
Length of caches list = 2
"""

Great! Now you have a full forward propagation that takes the input X and outputs a row vector $A^{[L]}$ containing your predictions. It also records all intermediate values in “caches”. Using $A^{[L]}$, you can compute the cost of your predictions.

Cost function

Now you will implement forward and backward propagation. You need to compute the cost, because you want to check if your model is actually learning.

Compute the cross-entropy cost J, using the following formula:

img

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# GRADED FUNCTION: compute_cost

def compute_cost(AL, Y):
"""
Implement the cost function defined by equation (7).

Arguments:
AL -- probability vector corresponding to your label predictions, shape (1, number of examples)
Y -- true "label" vector (for example: containing 0 if non-cat, 1 if cat), shape (1, number of examples)

Returns:
cost -- cross-entropy cost
"""

m = Y.shape[1]

# Compute loss from aL and y.
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 1 lines of code)
cost = -1/m * np.sum(np.dot(Y, np.log(AL).T) + np.dot(1-Y, np.log(1-AL).T))
### END CODE HERE ###

cost = np.squeeze(cost) # To make sure your cost's shape is what we expect (e.g. this turns [[17]] into 17).
assert(cost.shape == ())

return cost

"""
Y, AL = compute_cost_test_case()

print("cost = " + str(compute_cost(AL, Y)))

out:
cost = 0.414931599615
"""

Backward propagation module

Just like with forward propagation, you will implement helper functions for backpropagation. Remember that back propagation is used to calculate the gradient of the loss function with respect to the parameters.

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Linear backward

img

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Use the 3 formulas above to implement linear_backward().

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# GRADED FUNCTION: linear_backward

def linear_backward(dZ, cache):
"""
Implement the linear portion of backward propagation for a single layer (layer l)

Arguments:
dZ -- Gradient of the cost with respect to the linear output (of current layer l)
cache -- tuple of values (A_prev, W, b) coming from the forward propagation in the current layer

Returns:
dA_prev -- Gradient of the cost with respect to the activation (of the previous layer l-1), same shape as A_prev
dW -- Gradient of the cost with respect to W (current layer l), same shape as W
db -- Gradient of the cost with respect to b (current layer l), same shape as b
"""
A_prev, W, b = cache
m = A_prev.shape[1]

### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 3 lines of code)
dW = 1/m * np.dot(dZ, A_prev.T)
db = 1/m * np.sum(dZ, axis=1, keepdims=True)
dA_prev = np.dot(W.T, dZ)
### END CODE HERE ###

assert (dA_prev.shape == A_prev.shape)
assert (dW.shape == W.shape)
assert (db.shape == b.shape)

return dA_prev, dW, db

"""
# Set up some test inputs
dZ, linear_cache = linear_backward_test_case()

dA_prev, dW, db = linear_backward(dZ, linear_cache)
print ("dA_prev = "+ str(dA_prev))
print ("dW = " + str(dW))
print ("db = " + str(db))

out:
dA_prev = [[ 0.51822968 -0.19517421]
[-0.40506361 0.15255393]
[ 2.37496825 -0.89445391]]
dW = [[-0.10076895 1.40685096 1.64992505]]
db = [[ 0.50629448]]
"""

Linear-Activation backward

img

Implement the backpropagation for the LINEAR->ACTIVATION layer.

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# GRADED FUNCTION: linear_activation_backward

def linear_activation_backward(dA, cache, activation):
"""
Implement the backward propagation for the LINEAR->ACTIVATION layer.

Arguments:
dA -- post-activation gradient for current layer l
cache -- tuple of values (linear_cache, activation_cache) we store for computing backward propagation efficiently
activation -- the activation to be used in this layer, stored as a text string: "sigmoid" or "relu"

Returns:
dA_prev -- Gradient of the cost with respect to the activation (of the previous layer l-1), same shape as A_prev
dW -- Gradient of the cost with respect to W (current layer l), same shape as W
db -- Gradient of the cost with respect to b (current layer l), same shape as b
"""
linear_cache, activation_cache = cache

if activation == "relu":
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
dZ = relu_backward(dA, activation_cache)
dA_prev, dW, db = linear_backward(dZ, linear_cache)
### END CODE HERE ###

elif activation == "sigmoid":
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 2 lines of code)
dZ = sigmoid_backward(dA, activation_cache)
dA_prev, dW, db = linear_backward(dZ, linear_cache)
### END CODE HERE ###

return dA_prev, dW, db

"""
AL, linear_activation_cache = linear_activation_backward_test_case()

dA_prev, dW, db = linear_activation_backward(AL, linear_activation_cache, activation = "sigmoid")
print ("sigmoid:")
print ("dA_prev = "+ str(dA_prev))
print ("dW = " + str(dW))
print ("db = " + str(db) + "\n")

dA_prev, dW, db = linear_activation_backward(AL, linear_activation_cache, activation = "relu")
print ("relu:")
print ("dA_prev = "+ str(dA_prev))
print ("dW = " + str(dW))
print ("db = " + str(db))

out:
sigmoid:
dA_prev = [[ 0.11017994 0.01105339]
[ 0.09466817 0.00949723]
[-0.05743092 -0.00576154]]
dW = [[ 0.10266786 0.09778551 -0.01968084]]
db = [[-0.05729622]]

relu:
dA_prev = [[ 0.44090989 -0. ]
[ 0.37883606 -0. ]
[-0.2298228 0. ]]
dW = [[ 0.44513824 0.37371418 -0.10478989]]
db = [[-0.20837892]]
"""

L-Model Backward

Now you will implement the backward function for the whole network. Recall that when you implemented the L_model_forward function, at each iteration, you stored a cache which contains (X,W,b, and z). In the back propagation module, you will use those variables to compute the gradients. Therefore, in the L_model_backward function, you will iterate through all the hidden layers backward, starting from layer L. On each step, you will use the cached values for layer l to backpropagate through layer l.

img

Implement backpropagation for the [LINEAR->RELU] × (L-1) -> LINEAR -> SIGMOID model.

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# GRADED FUNCTION: L_model_backward

def L_model_backward(AL, Y, caches):
"""
Implement the backward propagation for the [LINEAR->RELU] * (L-1) -> LINEAR -> SIGMOID group

Arguments:
AL -- probability vector, output of the forward propagation (L_model_forward())
Y -- true "label" vector (containing 0 if non-cat, 1 if cat)
caches -- list of caches containing:
every cache of linear_activation_forward() with "relu" (it's caches[l], for l in range(L-1) i.e l = 0...L-2)
the cache of linear_activation_forward() with "sigmoid" (it's caches[L-1])

Returns:
grads -- A dictionary with the gradients
grads["dA" + str(l)] = ...
grads["dW" + str(l)] = ...
grads["db" + str(l)] = ...
"""
grads = {}
L = len(caches) # the number of layers
m = AL.shape[1]
Y = Y.reshape(AL.shape) # after this line, Y is the same shape as AL

# Initializing the backpropagation
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line of code)
dAL = - (np.divide(Y, AL) - np.divide(1 - Y, 1 - AL))
### END CODE HERE ###

# Lth layer (SIGMOID -> LINEAR) gradients. Inputs: "AL, Y, caches". Outputs: "grads["dAL"], grads["dWL"], grads["dbL"]
### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 2 lines)
current_cache = caches[L-1]
grads["dA" + str(L)], grads["dW" + str(L)], grads["db" + str(L)] = linear_activation_backward(dAL, current_cache, activation="sigmoid")
### END CODE HERE ###

for l in reversed(range(L-1)):
# lth layer: (RELU -> LINEAR) gradients.
# Inputs: "grads["dA" + str(l + 2)], caches". Outputs: "grads["dA" + str(l + 1)] , grads["dW" + str(l + 1)] , grads["db" + str(l + 1)]
### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 5 lines)
current_cache = caches[l]
dA_prev_temp, dW_temp, db_temp = linear_activation_backward(grads["dA" + str(l + 2)], current_cache, activation="relu")
grads["dA" + str(l + 1)] = dA_prev_temp
grads["dW" + str(l + 1)] = dW_temp
grads["db" + str(l + 1)] = db_temp
### END CODE HERE ###

return grads

"""
AL, Y_assess, caches = L_model_backward_test_case()
grads = L_model_backward(AL, Y_assess, caches)
print ("dW1 = "+ str(grads["dW1"]))
print ("db1 = "+ str(grads["db1"]))
print ("dA1 = "+ str(grads["dA1"]))

out:
dW1 = [[ 0.41010002 0.07807203 0.13798444 0.10502167]
[ 0. 0. 0. 0. ]
[ 0.05283652 0.01005865 0.01777766 0.0135308 ]]
db1 = [[-0.22007063]
[ 0. ]
[-0.02835349]]
dA1 = [[ 0. 0.52257901]
[ 0. -0.3269206 ]
[ 0. -0.32070404]
[ 0. -0.74079187]]
"""

Update Parameters

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# GRADED FUNCTION: update_parameters

def update_parameters(parameters, grads, learning_rate):
"""
Update parameters using gradient descent

Arguments:
parameters -- python dictionary containing your parameters
grads -- python dictionary containing your gradients, output of L_model_backward

Returns:
parameters -- python dictionary containing your updated parameters
parameters["W" + str(l)] = ...
parameters["b" + str(l)] = ...
"""

L = len(parameters) // 2 # number of layers in the neural network

# Update rule for each parameter. Use a for loop.
### START CODE HERE ### (≈ 3 lines of code)
for l in range(L):
parameters["W" + str(l+1)] = parameters["W" + str(l+1)] - learning_rate * grads["dW" + str(l+1)]
parameters["b" + str(l+1)] = parameters["b" + str(l+1)] - learning_rate * grads["db" + str(l+1)]
### END CODE HERE ###

return parameters

"""
parameters, grads = update_parameters_test_case()
parameters = update_parameters(parameters, grads, 0.1)

print ("W1 = "+ str(parameters["W1"]))
print ("b1 = "+ str(parameters["b1"]))
print ("W2 = "+ str(parameters["W2"]))
print ("b2 = "+ str(parameters["b2"]))

out:
W1 = [[-0.59562069 -0.09991781 -2.14584584 1.82662008]
[-1.76569676 -0.80627147 0.51115557 -1.18258802]
[-1.0535704 -0.86128581 0.68284052 2.20374577]]
b1 = [[-0.04659241]
[-1.28888275]
[ 0.53405496]]
W2 = [[-0.55569196 0.0354055 1.32964895]]
b2 = [[-0.84610769]]
"""

Conclusion

Congrats on implementing all the functions required for building a deep neural network!

We know it was a long assignment but going forward it will only get better. The next part of the assignment is easier.

In the next assignment you will put all these together to build two models:

  • A two-layer neural network
  • An L-layer neural network

You will in fact use these models to classify cat vs non-cat images!

-------------本文结束感谢您的阅读-------------

本文标题:Building your Deep Neural Network: Step by Step

文章作者:丁鹏

发布时间:2018年03月21日 - 09:03

最后更新:2018年03月22日 - 16:03

原始链接:http://deepon.me/2018/03/21/Building-your-Deep-Neural-Network-Step-by-Step/

许可协议: 署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 4.0 国际 转载请保留原文链接及作者。

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